Scientific Studies of Reading, 10, 143–164. \( \pi_{0i} \) is the maze performance for individual \( i \) at the beginning of the study (intercept). In the Espin et al. Christ et al. Different forms of the test are made for school level and grade levels. Scores from probes are plotted on progress graphs that depict student growth. This may also explain why the estimated weekly growth was rather low. Espin, C. A., Wallace, T., Lembke, E., Campbell, H., & Long, J. Bates, D., & Maechler, M. (2010). Are maze scores and change in maze scores related to group status (school level and dyslexia status)? This result was found for the linear and nonlinear growth model. Finally, growth in maze scores was related to reading performance (Tolar et al., 2012, 2014), but not to growth on other reading measures (Tolar et al., 2014). "Fill your house with stacks of books, in all the crannies and all the nooks." van den Berg, R., & te Lintelo, H. (1977). Referentiekader taal en rekenen. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade students. (2009) and Espin et al. The number of correct selections is counted and placed on the graph. A final reason for differences in growth rates might be the study design, more specifically, the duration, and schedule employed in the studies. Participants were 452 Dutch students who completed weekly maze measures over a period of 23 weeks. With RTI, the goal is similar: to get students back to full educational health. Few differences in reliability or validity were found related to administration time or scoring procedures, with the exception that reliability increased somewhat with an increase in administration time. It may be especially important for students who struggle to maintain good quality reading instruction throughout the school year. [Reference framework language and mathematics]. Correspondence to The results of the Tolar et al. Department of Education and Child Studies, Leiden University, Wassenaarseweg 52, 2333 AK, Leiden, The Netherlands, Department of Psychological Methods & Statistics, Wassenaarseweg 52, 2333 AK, Leiden, The Netherlands, Department Psychological Methods, University of Amsterdam, P.O. The Cito Volgsysteem Voortgezet Onderwijs (Cito Progress Monitoring System for Secondary Schools [CITO-VVO]; Cito, 2010) is a nationally-normed reading test in which students read 6–8 narrative and expository reading passages and answer 40–50 multiple-choice questions. Reading comprehension is not always the produce of nonsense word decoding and linguistic comprehension: Evidence from teenagers who are extremely poor readers. Passages were equivalent in terms of scores on a common reading index used in the Netherlands (van den Berg & te Lintelo, 1977). Comparing fit indices (AIC, BIC, –LL, and Deviance; smaller is better, Hox, 2010) revealed that the nonlinear growth model was a better fit than the linear growth model for the students’ maze scores. Stichting Dyslexie Nederland. The \( u_{1i} \) is the error term for the overall slope \( \pi_{1i} \), i.e., the difference between mean slope and an individual’s slope. As suggested by one of the anonymous reviewers, we further unpacked the results relating to dyslexia status and school level. COTAN beoordeling 2015, Cito LOVS toets 0 [COTAN review 2015, Cito student educational progress monitoring system test 0]. Finally, the present study should examine the extent to which CBM scores reflect linear growth over an academic school year. New York, NY: Springer. The Journal of Special Education, 37, 184–192. Participants were 31 (Espin et al., 2010) and 35 (Tichá et al., 2009) 8th-grade students who completed 4-min maze passages. School Psychology Review, 30, 507–524. There was the possibility that students could just randomly click on answers without reading the text, and thereby obtain an inflated correct maze score. A set of 15 maze passages remained to be used in the study. The clinic decides to share brochures on how to prevent spreading germs (e.g., washing hands frequently, covering mouth when coughing), passes out free hand sanitizer to those patients and to community venues (e.g., local grocery stores, coffee shops), and provides an on-call nurse to field questions for those individuals who have cold symptoms. Low and behold, a round of intense antibiotics has gotten this patient back to full health. By mid-year you'd want them to score like that with harder passages (e.g., 900L-950L). Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 37, 131–146. Or review one of the featured manuals to learn how to use CBMs in schools and to interpret the results to make good RTI decisions. (2012) study had a relatively large proportion of low-performing students in their samples (47% for our study; 56% for Tolar et al., 2012). Developments in curriculum-based measurement. With regard to the sample composition, both the current study and the Tolar et al. Research on CBM has demonstrated that when teachers have higher expectations and set more ambitious goals, students learn more (Allinder, 1995; Fuchs 1989). The \( u_{0i} \) is the error term for the overall intercept \( \pi_{0i} \), i.e., the difference between mean intercept and an individual’s intercept. If the growth trajectories produced by weekly maze scores would prove to be nonlinear, it would have implications for the use of the data for instructional decision-making. Scores reflected linear growth (Tolar et al., 2012, 2014), but not quadratic growth (Tolar et al., 2012). OECD. the use of multiple interventions to increase reading comprehension (e.g., Begeny & Silber, 2006; Rapp et al., 2007). Research is needed to examine the effects of duration and schedule on the growth trajectories produced by the maze scores. (2016). (1) at the within-individual level and (2) at the between-individual level were estimated; \( \pi_{1i} \) was a constant. Students read silently for 2–3 min, selecting the word that restores meaning to the text. In this study, we examine the reliability, sensitivity, and validity of scores from CBM reading measures as indicators of growth for secondary-school students. Such students face higher risks of poor educational and employment outcomes at age 19 and 21 (OECD, 2016). Students in the study were monitored five times across the school year. We do not make any warranties about the completeness, reliability and accuracy of this information. In sum, although the handful of studies that have been conducted to date at the secondary-school level have provided tentative support for the technical adequacy of maze scores for measuring progress in reading, there is a need for a large-scale study to examine the technical adequacy of scores from frequently administered CBM mazes. Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (2009). In P. C. Pullen, & M. J. Kennedy (Eds. The correct option was randomly placed in the first, second or third position for each item. Data were collected between January and June of one school year. Table 2 provides an overview of the correlations between scores on maze passages for adjacent administration weeks. To measure whether students’ maze scores improved over time, a linear and nonlinear (logistic) growth model were fitted to the data and compared to a null model where no growth was assumed (M0). Themed Booklists \( \pi_{1i} \) is the maze growth rate per week (slope) for individual \( i \). We found just what you surmised. A synthesis of fluency interventions for secondary struggling readers. Criterion measures were school level, dyslexia status, scores and growth on a standardized reading test. (3) at the between-individual level were also estimated. The second research question addressed growth. The growth of maze scores was examined by fitting different models for linear and nonlinear growth.Footnote 4 Table 3 presents the fit indices per model, and the Likelihood-Ratio-test results for each model comparison, and Table 4 (last row) presents the estimated mean initial maze scores (intercept) and progress (growth) for both growth models. Mean maze scores showed significant increase over time, students’ growth trajectories differed, and students’ initial performance levels (intercepts) and growth rates (slopes) were not correlated.