A female is pregnant for 5 months and usually gives birth to two young. Saiga meat is compared to lamb, considered to be nutritious and delicious. [16][42] Herd fatality is 100% once infected, with an estimated 40% of the species' total population already dead. A portion of the Ustiurt population migrates south to Uzbekistan and occasionally Turkmenistan in winter. The antelope gradually entered the Urals, though it did not colonise southern Europe. [48], Pasteurella multocida, a bacterium, was determined to be the cause of death. In Kazakhstan, the number of saigas was found to be increasing, from around 21,000 at the beginning of this millennium to around 81,000 in January 2010. (Heptner, et. The saiga antelope (/ˈsaɪɡə/, Saiga tatarica) is a critically endangered antelope which during antiquity inhabited a vast area of the Eurasian steppe spanning the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains in the northwest and Caucasus in the southwest into Mongolia in the northeast and Dzungaria in the southeast. During the summer, S. tatarica have a short coat that is yellowish red on the back and neck with a paler underside. By 1950, two million of them were found in the steppes of the USSR. It is extinct in China and southwestern Mongolia. It is also listed on Appendix II of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS or Bonn Convention) (4). The hairs, that measure 18–30 mm (11⁄16–1 3⁄16 in) long in summer, can grow as long as 40–70 mm (1 1⁄2–2 3⁄4 in) in winter. Cases of saiga herds being trapped within fenced areas and starving to death have been reported. [8], Fossils of saiga, concentrated mainly in central and northern Eurasia, date to as early as the late Pleistocene (nearly 0.1 Mya). Agricultural advancement and human settlements have been shrinking habitat areas of the saigas since the 20th century. [19], The fragmented information shows an abundance of saigas on the territory of modern Kazakhstan in the 14th-16th centuries. A portion of the Ustiurt population migrates south to Uzbekistan and occasionally Turkmenistan in winter. The etiology was confirmed to be goat plague in early 2017.[51]. Цоохор ирвэс хүмүүн биднээс тусламж хүсч байна. During the Pleistocene, they also occurred in Beringian North America and the British Isles. [16][43] Herd fatality is 100% once infected, with an estimated 40% of the species' total population already dead. Hemorrhagic septicemia is the likely cause of the most recent deaths[50] The change of the bacteria may be attributed to "the response of opportunistic microbes to changing environmental conditions". [25] In May 2015, what may be the same disease broke out in three northern regions of the country.

Before 1991 numbers of livestock, particularly sheep increased enormously. With a base diameter of 25–33 mm (1–1 5⁄16 in), the horns of the Russian saiga measure 28–38 cm (11–15 in) in length; the horns of the Mongolian saiga, however, reach a maximum length of 22 cm (8 11⁄16 in). Examples of saiga horn products seized by the Hong Kong government. [11] An extinct species of Saiga, S. borealis, has been identified from the Pleistocene of northern Eurasia. [35] As a result the quality of the pastures for saiga has deteriorated (7). Saigas are dependent on weather and affected by climate fluctuations to a great extent due to their migratory nature. [45], Biologist Murat Nurushev suggested that the cause might be acute ruminal tympany, whose symptoms (bloating, mouth foaming, and diarrhea) had been observed in dead saiga antelopes. Males have a pair of long, waxy colored horns with ring-like ridges along their length. In the summer months, they feed in morning and evening, and rest at midday. [16] More recent research involving a mass die-off in 2015 indicates warmer weather and attendant humidity caused bacteria common in saiga antelopes to move into the bloodstream and cause hemorrhagic septicemia. Another small population in the Pre-Caspian region of Russia remains under extreme threat. A 2010 study revealed that a steep decline has occurred in the genetic variability of the saiga since the late Pleistocene-Holocene, probably due to a population bottleneck.[14]. [49], In late 2016, a large loss of the population happened in Mongolia. Numerous recipes for cooking the antelope's meat can be found. It is considered to be more important to fund national conservation action than to improve the international trade control (7). [32] At that price, each horn would cost over US$4,600. Illustrations of saiga antelopes can be found among the cave paintings that were dated back to seventh to fifth century BC. The most striking feature of a saiga is its large head with a huge mobile nose that hangs over its mouth. Females give birth at this time, usually to two young, which are initially concealed in vegetation; all the females within the herd will give birth within a week of each other (6). [53] Cologne Zoological Garden and San Diego Zoo had them in the past. The Mongolian saiga can develop a sandy colour.
It was hunted extensively in Romania and Moldova until it became extinct in those regions at the end of the 18th century. Range gestation period: 4.63 to 5.07 months. The bacterium occurs in the antelopes and is normally harmless; the reason for the change in behavior of the bacterium is unknown. [13] The morphology of saiga does not seem to have changed significantly since prehistoric times. Saiga graze on a number of different grasses, herbs and shrubs (1). [9] The cladogram below is based on the 2013 study. An estimate of 14% or more of available pastureland is considered degraded and useless. [28], The Mongolian saiga (S. t. mongolica) is found in a small area in western Mongolia around the Sharga and Mankhan Nature Reserves. Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual. Climate change and stormy spring weather, they said, may have transformed harmless bacteria, carried by the saigas, into lethal pathogens. Milner-Gulland (chair of Saiga Conservation Alliance) said, "Antipoaching needs to be a top priority for the Russian and Kazakh governments."[16]. Given that poaching for domestic consumption is now a major threat, strengthening of anti-poaching law enforcement is crucial. [2][15] During summer migrations, a saiga's nose helps filter out dust kicked up by the herd and cools the animal's blood.

The ever-changing face of steppe requires saigas to search for new routes to their habitual lands. Kalmykia's president Kirsan Ilyumzhinov announced 2010 as the Year of Saiga in Kalmykia.

Scientists believe the disease affecting the Mongolian saiga was first transmitted from goats and sheep in the saiga range area in September 2016, and subsequently spilled over to saiga antelope. [23] The saiga is classified as critically endangered by the IUCN. In the winter, it heats up the frigid air before it is taken to the lungs. It was hunted extensively in Romania and Moldova until it became extinct in those regions at the end of the 18th century. Under the auspices of the Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals, also known as the Bonn Convention, the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) Concerning Conservation, Restoration and Sustainable Use of the Saiga Antelope was concluded and came into effect 24 September 2006. [42], In May 2015, uncommonly large numbers of saigas began to die from a mysterious epizootic illness suspected to be pasteurellosis. In June 2015, E.J. [citation needed] However, in May 2010, an estimated 12,000 of the 26,000 saiga population in the Ural region of Kazakhstan have been found dead. Рецепты БЛЮД ИЗ САЙГАКА", "Казахстан обвинили в дезориентации сайгаков", "Возводимые на казахско-узбекской границе заборы могут привести к полному исчезновению сайгака в Приаралье – ПАРАГРАФ-WWW", "Why Did Two-Thirds of These Weird Antelope Suddenly Drop Dead? English zoologist Reginald Innes Pocock classified them under different subfamilies in 1910. The mating season starts in November, when stags fight for the acceptance of females. [2][15] During summer migrations, a saiga's nose helps filter out dust kicked up by the herd and cools the animal's blood. English zoologist Reginald Innes Pocock classified them under different subfamilies in 1910. The assessment was performed using internationally recognized line transit method. [38] Starting in 2011, Kazakhstan has built more than 150 km of wire fence at the border with Uzbekistan. [24], Cherny Zemli Nature Reserve was created in Russia's Kalmykia Republic in the 1990s to protect the local saiga population. Cases of saiga herds being trapped within fenced areas and starving to death have been reported. By the classical age, they were apparently considered a characteristic animal of Scythia, judging from the historian Strabo's description of an animal called the kolos that was "between the deer and ram in size" and was (understandably but wrongly) believed to drink through its nose. Observations: Little is known about the longevity of these animals. Moreover, saiga bones were found among the remains of other wild animals near the human settlements. Say graze. By June 2015, no definitive cause for the epizootic had been found. Juveniles are targeted by foxes, steppe eagles, golden eagles, dogs, and ravens. This fence limits seasonal migration of saigas and other smaller animals. The breeding period lasts from late November to late December. Today, the dominant subspecies (S. t. tatarica) is only found in one region in Russia (in the Republic of Kalmykia and Astrakhan Oblast) and three areas in Kazakhstan (the Ural, Ustiurt, and Betpak-Dala populations).