[43] Though no record exists, Catherine and Peter are described as having married secretly between 23 Oct and 1 December 1707 in St. [25] Boyars who sought to retain their beards were required to pay an annual beard tax of one hundred rubles. [12] One means of achieving this end was the introduction of taxes for long beards and robes in September 1698. Alexei agreed to enter a monastery.
But rather than actually do so, he borrowed money and fled the country in disguise, accompanied only by Afrosina (who was dressed as a male page) and three servants. With his second wife,... See full answer below. [42] Martha converted to the Russian Orthodox Church and took the name Catherine. ", Albert Resis, "Russophobia and the 'Testament' of Peter the Great, 1812-1980, James Cracraft, "The Russian Empire as Cultural Construct,", Lindsey Hughes, "'What manner of man did we lose? The Tsar retained some Finnish lands close to Saint Petersburg, which he had made his capital in 1712.[31]. [34], The once powerful Persian Safavid Empire to the south was in deep decline. Like many children of European monarchs, Alexei didn’t often see his father, who spent much of his reign away fighting the Ottomans and Swedes and traveling around Western Europe. In turn, Russia paid two million Riksdaler and surrendered most of Finland. He commanded all of his courtiers and officials to wear European clothing and cut off their long beards, causing his Boyars, who were very fond of their beards, great upset. “There was clearly some sort of understanding with the Austrians that the tsarevich Alexei might be able to lead some sort of revolt,” Bushkovitch says. Many monarchs throughout history have killed family members. He continued his travel to the Austrian Netherlands and France. By the grace of God, the most excellent and great sovereign emperor Pyotr Alekseevich the ruler of all the Russias: of Moscow, of Kiev, of Vladimir, of Novgorod, Tsar of Kazan, Tsar of Astrakhan and Tsar of Siberia, sovereign of Pskov, great prince of Smolensk, of Tver, of Yugorsk, of Perm, of Vyatka, of Bulgaria and others, sovereign and great prince of the Novgorod Lower lands, of Chernigov, of Ryazan, of Rostov, of Yaroslavl, of Belozersk, of Udora, of Kondia and the sovereign of all the northern lands, and the sovereign of the Iverian lands, of the Kartlian and Georgian Kings, of the Kabardin lands, of the Circassian and Mountain princes and many other states and lands western and eastern here and there and the successor and sovereign and ruler. For example, by the end of the century Russia came to export more iron than any other country in the world.[15]. The Tsar helped with the construction of an East Indiaman ship especially laid down for him: Peter and Paul. Each college consisted of a president, a vice-president, a number of councilors and assessors, and a procurator. During his youth, Peter befriended Patrick Gordon, Franz Lefort and several other foreigners in Russian service and was a frequent guest in Moscow's German Quarter, where he met his Dutch mistress Anna Mons.

Sweden was also opposed by Denmark–Norway, Saxony, and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. [13], In his process to westernize Russia, he wanted members of his family to marry other European royalty.

Russian manufacturing and main exports were based on the mining and lumber industries. ", Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral, Saint Petersburg, Charlotte Christine of Brunswick-Lüneburg, History of the administrative division of Russia, Military history of the Russian Empire § Peter the Great, Adoption of the Gregorian calendar#Adoption in Eastern Europe, "Peter the Great and the Territorial Expansion of Russia", Peter the Great: Part 1 of 3 (The Carpenter Czar), "Cross, Letitia (bap.
Most of Finland was occupied by the Russians. As Feodor did not leave any children, a dispute arose between the Miloslavsky family (Maria Miloslavskaya was the first wife of Alexis I) and Naryshkin family (Natalya Naryshkina was the second wife) over who should inherit the throne. Peter became the sole ruler when Ivan died in 1696, while Peter was 24 years old. Most parish priests were sons of priests, were very poorly educated, and very poorly paid. He abolished the land tax and household tax and replaced them with a poll tax.

Voltaire's 1759 biography gave 18th-century Russians a man of the Enlightenment, while Alexander Pushkin's "The Bronze Horseman" poem of 1833 gave a powerful romantic image of a creator-god.

His eldest child and heir, Alexei, was suspected of being involved in a plot to overthrow the Emperor. After 1718, Peter established colleges in place of the old central agencies of government, including foreign affairs, war, navy, expense, income, justice, and inspection. (Bushkovitch points out that evidence for this timeline is shaky.) Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich of Russia, son of Peter the Great. Peter's legacy has always been a major concern of Russian intellectuals. Catherine II the Great of Russia, daughter of Peter the Great. ", Resis, Albert. He spoke with Augustus II the Strong and Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor.[21].

He launched about thirty ships against the Ottomans in 1696, capturing Azov in July of that year. Thus, in the year 7207 of the old Russian calendar, Peter proclaimed that the Julian Calendar was in effect and the year was 1700.[27]. He also had a mistress from Holland, Anna Mons. He divorced the Tsaritsa and forced her to join a convent. In 1716 and 1717, the Tsar revisited the Netherlands and went to see Herman Boerhaave. [11] Heavily influenced by his advisors from Western Europe, Peter reorganized the Russian army along modern lines and dreamed of making Russia a maritime power. The Senate was founded as the highest state institution to supervise all judicial, financial and administrative affairs. The Swedes likewise attempted to recruit the tsarevich. And advanced the Russian culture by 120 years! After considerable success and the capture of many provinces and cities in the Caucasus and northern mainland Persia, the Safavids were forced to hand over territory to Russia, comprising Derbent, Shirvan, Gilan, Mazandaran, Baku, and Astrabad. This was done to prevent fighting between the stronger noble houses and to bring fresh blood into the family. Power was instead exercised by his mother, Natalya Naryshkina. It was only when Natalya died in 1694 that Peter, now aged 22, became an independent sovereign.