As a result, some of them lived as crypto-Protestants, also called Nicodemites, contrary to the urging of John Calvin, who wanted them to live their faith openly. Other Protestant movements grew up along the lines of mysticism or humanism (cf. Teter, Magda. [185] The great majority of American Protestants, both clergy and laity, strongly supported the independence movement. Cambridge, U.K. ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000. "Weber revisited: A literature review on the possible Link between Protestantism, Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth." [10], The leaders of the Roman Catholic Church condemned him at the Council of Constance (1414–1417) by burning him at the stake despite a promise of safe-conduct. In Europe, there has been a general move away from religious observance and belief in Christian teachings and a move towards secularism.


[87] Baptist practice spread to England, where the General Baptists considered Christ's atonement to extend to all people, while the Particular Baptists believed that it extended only to the elect.

[219] According to Mark A. Noll, 79% of Anglicans lived in the United Kingdom in 1910, while most of the remainder was found in the United States and across the British Commonwealth. In the 1520s Luther's reforms spread among the mostly German-speaking inhabitants of such major cities as Danzig (now Gdańsk), Thorn (now Toruń) and Elbing (now Elbląg). Roger Williams was an early proponent of religious freedom and the separation of church and state. Centuries of this practice allowed diverse Protestant traditions to emerge in Romania, including Lutheranism, Calvinism and Unitarianism. [a] Due to the reform efforts of Hus and other Bohemian reformers, Utraquist Hussitism was acknowledged by the Council of Basel and was officially tolerated in the Crown of Bohemia, although other movements were still subject to persecution, including the Lollards in England and the Waldensians in France and Italian regions. Evangelicals are Christians who believe in the centrality of the conversion or "born again" experience in receiving salvation, believe in the authority of the Bible as God's revelation to humanity and have a strong commitment to evangelism or sharing the Christian message. Perhaps the oldest official united church is found in Germany, where the Evangelical Church in Germany is a federation of Lutheran, United (Prussian Union) and Reformed churches, a union dating back to 1817.

The compromise was uneasy and was capable of veering between extreme Calvinism on the one hand and Catholicism on the other. [112] It is excluded due to its Nontrinitarian theological nature. Where Protestant reformers enjoyed princely patronage, they were much more likely to succeed. This branch of Protestantism is distinguished by belief in the baptism with the Holy Spirit as an experience separate from conversion that enables a Christian to live a Holy Spirit–filled and empowered life. As a result, productivity grew, which led to increased profits and enabled employers to pay higher wages. Pennsylvania also became a centre of learning. Unlike mainstream Lutheran, Calvinist and Zwinglian movements, the Radical Reformation, which had no state sponsorship, generally abandoned the idea of the "Church visible" as distinct from the "Church invisible". [175][176], Protestants also took the initiative in advocating for religious freedom. The Hussite Wars concluded with the victory of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, his Catholic allies and moderate Hussites and the defeat of the radical Hussites. Parallel to events in Germany, a movement began in Switzerland under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli.