He was the first to adopt the title of "emperor" (huangdi) and founded an Imperial Ancestral Temple in the Qing capital Mukden in 1636. Since posthumous titles and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, to avoid confusion they are usually preceded by the dynastic name. The defeat of the Boxer Rebellion was the death knell for the Qing Dynasty. The latter chose his successor Minning (1782–1850), the Daoguang Emperor, in 1799, but only read his testament shortly before dying. Hong Taiji was the real founder of Qing imperial institutions. From 1861 onwards, she was officially co-regent with Empress Dowager Ci'an, but her political role increased so much that within a few years she was taking charge of most government matters. Puyi chose Henry as a given name and was thereafter known as Henry Puyi in the West. She has taught at the high school and university levels in the U.S. and South Korea. [42] When the Qing took control of Beijing in 1644, Prince Regent Dorgon had the Aisin Gioro ancestral tablets installed in what had been the Ming ancestral temple. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Omissions? The Xuantong Emperor (Puyi) of the Qing dynasty, the de jure last Emperor of China, abdicated on 12 February 1912. [36] Even the Daodejing, a Daoist classic, and the Thousand Character Classic, a widely used primer, had to be reprinted with yuan instead of xuan. [35] The use of xuan 玄 ("mysterious", "profound") in the Kangxi Emperor's personal name Xuanye (玄燁), for example, forced printers of Buddhist and Daoist books to replace this very common character with yuan 元 in all their books. [42] Nurhaci was identified retrospectively as Taizu ("grand progenitor"), the usual name given to a dynasty's first emperor. Because each emperor's posthumous name was extremely long—that of the Shunzhi Emperor, for instance, was "Titian longyun dingtong jianji yingrui qinwen xianwu dade honggong zhiren chunxiao Zhang huangdi" 體天隆運定統建極英睿欽文顯武大德弘功至仁純孝章皇帝—the table only shows the short form.[49]. They also imposed some Manchu traditions on the Chinese, such as requiring men to wear their hair in the long braid, or queue. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. [21] The "Oboi regency", named after the most powerful of the four regents, lasted until 1669, when the Kangxi Emperor started his personal rule. [2] When Nurhaci died in 1626, a committee of Manchu princes selected Hong Taiji (1592–1643) as his successor. Puyi (right) with his father and a younger brother, 1909. They never intermarried with Han women, and Manchu noblewomen did not bind their feet. Januar 1912. [19] His last will—which was tampered and perhaps even forged by its beneficiaries—appointed four co-regents for his son and successor the six-year-old Xuanye, who was to reign as the Kangxi Emperor. [12] However, as the Guangxu Emperor died heirless too, Empress Dowager Cixi also chose his successor, Puyi, in 1908. [27] Even if an emperor died in the middle of the year, his era name was used for the rest of that year before the next era officially began. In 1644, the last emperor of the Ming Dynasty had hanged himself after the capital was conquered, and China was in chaos for months. With two exceptions (Jiaqing and Guangxu), they reigned under their predecessor's era name until the following New Year. China descended into the Chinese Civil War, which was interrupted by the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II and continued until the Communists' victory in 1949. [15] Official documents referred to him as "Imperial Uncle Prince Regent" (Huang shufu shezheng wang 皇叔父攝政王), a title that left him one step short of claiming the throne for himself. Ironically, a Ming general who had formed an alliance with the Manchu army invited them into Beijing in 1644. Starting with Nurhaci, there were thirteen Qing rulers. [22], For almost 200 years, the Qing Empire was governed by adult emperors. His son and successor Hong Taiji (1592–1643) renamed his people "Manchu" in 1635 and changed the name of Nurhaci's state from "Later Jin" to "Qing" in 1636. [38], Later emperors found other ways to diminish the inconvenience of naming taboos. He reigned under a regency for three years, and then on February 12, 1912, in response to the Chinese Revolution, he was forced to abdicate, ending the 267-year Qing rule of China and the 2,000-year-old imperial system. [9] After the Kangxi Emperor's death in 1722, his fourth son Yinzhen (1678–1735) emerged as victor and reigned as the Yongzheng Emperor, but his legitimacy was questioned for years after his accession. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. [32], An era name was used to record dates, usually in the format "Reign-name Xth year, Yth month, Zth day" (sometimes abridged as X/Y/Z by modern scholars). As a compromise, the Manchu princes chose Hong Taiji's four-year-old son Fulin (the Shunzhi Emperor, r. 1643–1661) as his successor, marking the adoption of father-son succession in the Qing imperial line. [28], Like the emperors of the Ming dynasty, Qing monarchs used only one reign name and are usually known by that name, as when we speak of the "Qianlong Emperor" (r. 1735–1795) or the "Guangxu Emperor" (r. His autobiography, From Emperor to Citizen, was published in English in 1964–65, and he was the subject of the 1987 biopic The Last Emperor. Puyi succeeded to the Manchu throne at the age of three, when his uncle, the Guangxu emperor, died on November 14, 1908. Qing emperors succeeded each other from father to son until the Tongzhi Emperor (r. 1861–1875), the 11th Qing ruler, died childless in 1875. [9] The name of the future emperor was sealed in a casket that was hidden behind a panel in the rafters of the Qianqing Palace inside the Forbidden City. [9] As successor, the Yongzheng Emperor chose his fourth son Hongli (1711–1799), the Qianlong Emperor, who himself selected his 15th son Yongyan, the Jiaqing Emperor (r. 1796–1820). The Qing dynasty (1636–1912) was the last imperial dynasty of China. On the spirit tablets that were displayed there, the temple name was followed by the honorific name, as in "Shizu Zhang huangdi" for the Shunzhi Emperor and "Taizong Wen huangdi" for Hong Taiji. [46], After death emperors were given an honorific posthumous title that reflected their ruling style. All dates in the table are in the Gregorian calendar. [10], To avoid such struggles in the future, the Yongzheng Emperor designed a system by which the living emperor would choose his successor in advance and on merit, but would keep his choice secret until his deathbed. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. [36] When the Yongzheng Emperor, whose generation was the first in which all imperial sons shared a generational character as in Chinese clans, acceded the throne, he made all his brothers change the first character of their name from "Yin" (胤) to "Yun" (允) to respect the taboo. [14] When the young Fulin was chosen to succeed his father Hong Taiji in September 1643, two "prince regents" were selected for him: Hong Taiji's half-brother Dorgon (1612–1650) and Nurhaci's nephew Jirgalang (1599–1655). Hong Taiji was the only Qing emperor to use two era names (see table). [8] Because Qing policy forced imperial princes to reside in the capital Beijing, many princes became involved in politics, and the Kangxi succession became particularly contested. Nurhaci's posthumous name was originally the "Martial Emperor" (武皇帝 wǔ huángdì)—to reflect his military exploits—but in 1662 it was changed to "Highest Emperor" (高皇帝 gāo huángdì), that is, "the emperor from whom all others descend. [34], As in previous dynasties, the emperor's personal name became taboo after his accession. She became sole regent in 1881 after the death of Empress Dowager Ci'an. [45] Puyi, the last Qing monarch, reigned as the Xuantong Emperor from 1908 to 1912, but did not receive a temple name. It was officially founded in 1636 in what is now Northeast China, but only succeeded the Ming dynasty in China proper in 1644. As the century wore on and Qing China weakened, other countries, including France, Germany, the U.S., Russia, and even former tributary state Japan, made increasing demands for trade and diplomatic access. But instead of making the deceased emperor adopt an heir from the generation below himself (in this case this would have been a nephew of the Tongzhi Emperor) as the rules of imperial succession dictated, she picked one from the same generation. [2] His answer reflected the fact that in Jurchen society, succession as tribal chieftain was usually determined by merit, not descent. [11] She assured her opponents that as soon as the new emperor had a son, he would be adopted into the Tongzhi Emperor's line. ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ Daicing Gurun; chinesisch 清朝, Pinyin Qīngcháo, W.-G. Ch'ing Ch'ao) oder Mandschu-Dynastie wurde 1616 von den Mandschu unter Nurhaci begründet und herrschte ab 1644 im Kaiserreich China. The Qing period ended when the imperial clan abdicated in February 1912, a few months after a military uprising had started the Xinhai Revolution that led to the foundation of the Republic of China. The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing , was the last imperial dynasty of China. Hong Taiji created the Qing ancestral cult in 1636 when he assumed the title of emperor. Puyi, Wade-Giles romanization P’u-i, also called Henry Puyi, reign name Xuantong, (born February 7, 1906, Beijing, China—died October 17, 1967, Beijing), last emperor (1908–1911/12) of the Qing (Manchu) dynasty (1644–1911/12) in China and puppet emperor of the Japanese-controlled state of Manchukuo (Chinese: Manzhouguo) from 1934 to 1945. It limped on until 1911, when the Last Emperor, the child ruler Puyi, was deposed. [11], When the Tongzhi Emperor died heirless in 1875, his mother Empress Dowager Cixi was the one who selected the next emperor. She controlled the government during the reigns of the Tongzhi (r. 1861–1875) and Guangxu (r. 1875–1908) emperors. Taizong was the usual name for the second emperor of a dynasty, and so Hong Taiji was canonized as Qing Taizong. [41] Historical records like the Veritable Records (traditional Chinese: 實錄; simplified Chinese: 实录; pinyin: Shílù), which were compiled at the end of each reign, retrospectively referred to emperors by their temple names. Unlike the Ming emperors, who named their eldest legitimate son heir apparent whenever possible and forbade other sons from participating in politics, the Qing monarchs did not choose their successors according to primogeniture. [31], Reign names are usually left untranslated, but some scholars occasionally gloss them when they think these names have a special significance. Updates? By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, The Fall of the Ming Dynasty in China in 1644, The Fall of China's Qing Dynasty in 1911–1912, Tibet and China: History of a Complex Relationship, J.D., University of Washington School of Law, B.A., History, Western Washington University. Corrections? In the last fifty years of the dynasty—from the death of the Xianfeng Emperor in 1861 to the final abdication of the child emperor Puyi in 1912—the imperial position again became vulnerable to the power of regents, empress dowagers, imperial uncles, and eunuchs. Even more than the Mongol rulers of the Yuan Dynasty, the Manchus largely stayed separate from the greater Chinese civilization. At 61 years, the reign of the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661–1722) was the longest, though his grandson, the Qianlong Emperor (r. 1735–1796), would have reigned even longer if he had not purposely ceded the throne to the Jiaqing Emperor (r. 1796–1820) in order not to reign longer than his grandfather.